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Access to Justice: Selected Essays

Editors  
Mary George  
Johan Shamsuddin  
Grace Xavier  
Stewart Manley  
Anneliz Reina George  
Vu Hai Dang  

At international law, States have been insisting on the peaceful resolution of disputes before 1945, even though we have seen the outbreak of wars and other hostilities between nations. The UN system of access to justice has been successful in many instances, particularly, in international commercial arbitrations but unfortunately, there are shortcomings in the system. Of more recent innovation, is the establishment of the International Criminal Court, which also faces certain limitations. 
The call for the peaceful settlement of disputes is also echoed in the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention. Though this Convention has stellar peaceful dispute resolution options, these have not been entirely successful in settling some of the South China Sea - conflicts. 
The individual chapters of this book reveal some of the core strengths and weaknesses of the dispute settlement options at international law. The book indicates the current state of international and regional law on peaceful dispute resolution options as a means of access to justice and the power of States to settle disputes amicably, if they choose to do so, as part of their international legal obligations entrenched in the conscience of the State. As such, States have a duty to act conscionably in the peaceful settlement of their disputes. 

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Contents

International and Regional Instruments       
International and Local Cases 
List of Statutes and Resolutions of the United Nations General Assembly 
About the Authors  
Preface 
List of Abbreviations 

Chapter 1 Dispute Settlement at International Law              
Mary George 

1. Introduction 
2. The Hague Peace Conferences, the Permanent Court of Arbitration and the Permanent Court of International Justice 
3. 1945 UN Charter 
4. The International Court of Justice 
4.1 Contentious Jurisdiction 
4.2 Advisory Jurisdiction 
4.3 Sources of Law 13 
4.4 The Judicial Activity of the ICJ 
5. Other International Instruments                 
6. ASEAN Treaty System 
6.1 The 1976 ASEAN Treaty of Amity and Cooperation         
6.2 The 2004 ASEAN Protocol on Enhanced Dispute Settlement Mechanism 

6.2.1. Compliance 
6.2.2. Compensation and Suspension of Concessions 

Chapter 2 International Criminal Court 
Stewart Manley 

1. Introduction 
2. Development of International Criminal Law 
2.1. Prior to the 1990s 
2.2. The ad hoc Tribunals 
2.3. The International Criminal. Court 
3. A New Equitable Legal Order 
4. Access to Justice: Rights of Victims at the ICC 
4.1. Right to Participate 
4.2. Right to Reparations 
5. Access to Justice: Politics and the ICC 
5.1. Case Selection by the ICC Prosecutor 
5.2. UN Security Council Referrals 
6. Conclusion 

Chapter 3 International Commercial Arbitration: Trade Disputes 
Grace Xavier 

1. Introduction 
2. Advantages of Arbitration 
2.1. Party Autonomy 
2.2. Speedier Conduct of the Proceedings 
2.3. Privacy 
2.4. informality of Procedure 
3. Disadvantages of Arbitration 
3.1. Cost 
3.2. Delays 
3.3, Technicalities 
3.4. Legal and Complex Issues 
3.5. Setting Aside Awards due to "Misconduct" 
4. International Commercial Arbitration
5 Regulation of Arbitration in Malaysia: Regulation of International Commercial Arbitration in Trade Disputes 
6. The World Trade Organization 
7. international Commercial Arbitration: Legal Instruments - The Rationale 
8. UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration
9. Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States
10. New York Convention 1958
11. Malaysia - International Commercial Arbitration - Access to Justice?
11.1. Grant of interim measures under Section 11 of the 73 Arbitration Act 2005
11.2. Jurisdictional error of an arbitrator 
11.3. Setting aside an award: the last option for the court
12. Conclusion 

Chapter 4 Dispute Settlement under the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention & South China Sea Conflicts 
Mary George 

1. Introduction 
1.1 The 1958 Geneva Optional Protocol of Signature 78 Concerning the Compulsory Settlement of Disputes 
2. 1982 Law Of the Sea Convention     
2.1. Section 1                 
2.1.1. Conciliation            
2.2. Section 2                 
2.2.1. A Summary             
2.2.2. Experts                 
2.2.3. Provisional Measures         
2.2.4. Enrica Lexie             
2.2.4.1 Agreed Dispute             
2.2.4.2.Exchange of Views/ Conciliation 
2.2.4.3.Exhaustion of Local Remedies 
2.2.4.4.An Abuse of Legal Process or Not 
2.2.4.5.Sovereign Immunity         
2.2.4.6.Decision             
2.2.5. Arrest and. Detention         
2.2.6. Applicable Law             
2.2.7. Preliminary Proceedings         
2.2.8. Exhaustion of the Local Remedies Rule 
2.2.9. Final and Binding decisions     
2.3. Section 3 

3. Annex V Conciliation 
3.1. Annex V, Section 2 
4. Annex VI Statute Of The International Tribunal For The Law Of The Sea 
4.1. Composition of the Tribunal     
4.2. Arrest and Detention: The M/V Norsiar Case 
4.2.1. Italy's argument: the Tribunal has no jurisdiction 
4.9.9. Italy's argument: no dispute under the 1982 Convention 
4.2.3. Italy's argument: lack of jurisdiction ratione personae 
4.2.4. Exchange of views under Article 83 of the 1982 Convention 
4.2.5. Italy's objections to admissibility: Nationality of claims
4.2.6. Italy's objections: exhaustion of local remedies 
4.2.7. Italy's arguments on acquiescence, estoppel and extinctive prescription. 
4.3. Specialised Chamber         
4.3.1. Jurisdiction ofthe Special Chamber
4.4. Competency Matters
4.5. Procedure                 
5. Annex VII Arbitration         
6. Annex VIII Special Arbitration     
7. The South China Sea Conflicts    
7.1. Conflicts                 
7.2. The South China Sea Arbitration Case - the guessing game? 
7.2.1. The Philippines Relief
7.2.2. Legal and Practical Consequences of China's non-participation 
7.2.3. Annex VII 
7.2.4. The Tribunal has Jurisdiction 138 
7.2.5. Summary of the Tribunal's Award on Jurisdiction 
7.2.5.1. Preliminary Matters                                               
7.2.5.2. Existence of a Dispute concerning the Interpretation and Application of the Convention 
7.2.5.3. Involvement of Third. Parties 
7.2.5.4. Preconditions to Jurisdiction 
7.2.5.5. Exceptions and Limitations to jurisdiction 
7.2.5.6. Decisions of the Tribunal. 
7.2.5.7. The Status and Effect of the Tribunal's Award on Jurisdiction 
7.3. Declaration 

Chapter 5 International Law in Malaysia and Viet Nam     
Johan Shamsuddin, Anneliz Reina George and Vu Hai Dang

1. Introduction                                                                  
2. Constitution of Malaysia and International Law              
3. International Law in Malaysia                                         
4. The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969      
5. Constitutional Provisions relating to Treaties                  
6. Power of Parliament to make laws for the States: 164 the Second List
7. Ratification Process and Practice 166 
8. International Dispute Settlement                     
8.1. Sabah                                                          
8.1.1. Conclusions of Secretary-General             
8.1.2. Recognition of the State of Malaysia         
8.2. Differences with Indonesia and Singapore   
9. Stipulations relating to International Law in Viet Nam's Constitution and the Law of Treaties 
9.1. The Constitution              
9.2. The Law of Treaties, 2016                                  
9.2.1. Conflicts between Treaty and the Constitution 
9.2.2. Articles 17 and 18        
9.2.3. Articles 8 - 12            
9.2.4. Articles 13 - 21            
9.2.5. Article 22                     
9.2.6. Articles 23 - 27            
9.2.7. Articles 28 - 34            
9.2.8. Articles 37 - 40            
9.2.9. Artcles 41 - 46             
9.3. Presentation at the Workshop "Dispute Settlement under the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention" 

by Dr. Vu Hai Dang from Viet Nam 
9.3.1. Introduction: Viet Nam and the 1982 United  Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 
9.3.2. The 1982 Convention rules in national law
9.3.3. Best way forward: dispute settlement of the South China Sea issues 

Chapter 6 Conclusions

6.1. Way Forward                     

Appendices     
Appendix I: ASEAN Dispute Settlement Mechanisms Covered Agreement (DSM Covered Agreement) 
Appendix II ASEAN Working Procedures Of The Panel
Appendix III: The Constitution. Of The Socialist Republic Of Viet Nam Appendix IV: Workshop On Dispute Settlement under The 1982 Law Of The Sea Convention

 
Bibliography        
Index                  

Last Updated: 30/01/2020